原文标题：《 London Upgrade Overview 》
原文作者： Tim Beiko
For the past few months, core Ethereum developers have been busy with the "London" upgrade, the next one after the Berlin upgrade that went live in April. Although the time of activation has not been determined, the EIP included in the "London" upgrade has been determined. According to & have spent "London" Upgrade Specification, these EIPs are:
· EIP-1559: Cost Market Reform for ETH 1.0 Chain & NBSP;
· EIP-3198: BaseFee opcode & NBSP;
· EIP-3529: Reduced gas refunds & NBSP;
· EIP-3541: Rejected new contracts starting with 0xEF bytecode & NBSP;
· EIP-3554: Difficulty bombs have been pushed back to December 1, 2021
Let's look at each EIP in detail.
EIP 1559 is one of the most high-profile Ethereum changes and the biggest reform that will be introduced in the "London" upgrade. EIP 1559 will introduce a "base fee" in the block, which tracks the price of gas on the Ethereum network (the gas price depends on the user's demand for block space). This means it will be easier for wallets and users to accurately estimate transaction fees. In addition, EIP 1559 adds a new type of transaction that allows users to specify the maximum amount they are willing to pay, and the maximum amount they are willing to pay to miners. The difference between the maximum fee specified by the user and (base fee + miner's tip) is refunded to the user (assuming there is a difference). Finally, EIP 1559 will destroy part of the transaction fee, which is considered by many in the Ethereum community to be a major improvement to the economics of the Ethereum network. How EIP 1559 works, its benefits, and its impact are far beyond the scope of a single article. Click here to view all the materials on EIP 1559. Click here to watch part of the EIP 1559 video series.
EIP 3198 is a companion EIP to EIP 1559. This EIP only adds the opcode BASEFEE. This opcode returns the value of the base fee for its block. This enables smart contracts to access the value on the chain, which facilitates the submission of proof of fraud and the creation of trust-free gas price derivatives. For a full introduction to this proposal, see Ratan Rai Sur, which takes you through EIP 3198: Basefee opcodes.
The other major change introduced by the "London" upgrade is the removal of gas refunds for SELFDESTRUCT opcodes and the reduction of gas refunds for SSTORE opcodes. While gas refunds were originally intended as an incentive for developers to clear the status where possible, they actually resulted in an increase in the size of the status after the appearance of the gas Token. Users can mint gas tokens when the gas price is low and then destroy them when the gas price is higher to get a refund.
In addition, gas refunds can also cause block execution times to change. Up to 50% of the gas refund can be used to perform further calculations in the same block prior to the "London" upgrade. This means that the block size can be up to 1.5 times the gas cap. EIP 3529 reduces the "execution refund" from 50% to a minimum of 20%. This change could offset some of the differences in block size caused by EIP 1559, which allows blocks to use up to twice the current gas cap.
EIP 3541 is a simple change for EIP 3540 The EVM improvement proposal lays the foundation. Once EIP 3541 is implemented, new contracts starting with 0xEF bytecode will not be deployed. Existing contracts will not be affected. After the "London" upgrade is initiated, contract deployments that have the shortest bytecode sequence beginning with 0xEF but do not correspond to the starting sequence of existing contracts will be rolled back to determine contracts that are compatible with the EIP-3540 semantics. Please note: EIP 3540 requires additional deployment of network upgrades. Also note that if EIP 3540 is not deployed, EIP 3541 can also be used to reserve the starting bytes for use in other scenarios.
- EIP 3554 will delay the difficulty bombs. Difficulty Bomb/Ice Age is a mechanism introduced by Ethereum to "freeze" mining while the Ethereum network transitions to Proof of Interest. Given that the Ethereum network is not yet ready to transition to proof of stake, we need to delay the detonating of the difficulty bomb. It has been postponed three times before, during the Metropolitan (EIP-649), Constantinople (EIP-1234) and Muir Glacier (EIP-2384).
While the previous ones were long delayed, this time the core developers have only pushed the difficulty bomb back to December 2021. At that point, the Ethereum network will either make a successful transition to proof of stake or undergo another upgrade.
These are all the changes introduced by the "London" upgrade. The beta network block and the associated client release will be announced soon on the Ethereum Foundation blog.
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